A locust plague up to 20 times larger than a wave two months earlier is threatening to devastate parts of East Africa.
January and February saw the worst locust outbreak some countries had seen in 70 years, with crops and farmland ravaged across much of Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia.
But now, amid a global coronavirus pandemic, a second, much bigger round of the voracious insects is arriving.
Billions of the young desert locusts are winging in from breeding grounds in Somalia in search of fresh vegetation springing up with seasonal rains.
Millions of already vulnerable people are at risk. And as they gather to try to combat the locusts, often in vain, they risk spreading Covid-19 – a topic that comes a distant second for many in rural areas.
It is the locusts that “everyone is talking about”, said Yoweri Aboket, a farmer in Uganda.
“Once they land in your garden they do total destruction. Some people will even tell you that the locusts are more destructive than the coronavirus. There are even some who don’t believe that the virus will reach here.”
Some farmers in Mr Abokat’s village near the Kenyan border bang metal pans, whistle or throw stones to try to drive the locusts away. But mostly they watch in frustration, largely barred by a coronavirus lockdown from gathering outside their homes.
A failed garden of cassava, a local staple, means hunger. Such worries in the village of some 600 people are reflected across a large part of East Africa, including Kenya, Ethiopia and South Sudan. The locust swarms also have been sighted in Djibouti, Eritrea, Tanzania and Congo.
The UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) has called the locust outbreak, caused in part by climate change, “an unprecedented threat” to food security and livelihoods. Its officials have called this new wave some 20 times the size of the first.
Favourable breeding conditions through May mean there likely will be another new round of swarms in late June and July, coinciding with the start of the harvest season, the agency said.
The UN has raised its aid appeal from $76m (£61m) to $153m, saying immediate action is needed before more rainfall fuels further growth in locust numbers. So far the FAO has collected $111m in cash or pledges.
The locusts are “invading the Eastern Africa region in exceptionally large swarms like never seen before”, the Nairobi-based Climate Prediction and Application Centre said.
The new swarms include “young adults”, voracious bugs “that eat more than the adult ones”, said Kenneth Mwangi, a satellite information analyst at the centre.
Mr Mwangi and other officials in Kenya cited difficulties in fighting the infestation as coronavirus-related travel restrictions slow cross-border travel and delay the delivery of pesticides.
The verification work of field officers has been curtailed, making it harder for the centre to update regional prediction models, Mr Mwangi said.
In rural Laikipia county, among the worst affected in Kenya, some are calling attention to the threat to commercial farms.
“I think, unfortunately, because of other things going on around the world, people are forgetting about the problem with the locusts. But it’s a very, very real problem,” farmer George Dodds told the FAO.
Aerial spraying is the only effective way to control the locust outbreak. After the locusts crossed into Uganda for the first time since the 1960s, soldiers resorted to using hand-held spray pumps because of difficulties in obtaining the needed aircraft.
Uganda’s agriculture minister said authorities are unable to import enough pesticides from Japan, citing disruptions to international cargo shipments.
The government is yet to meet an additional budget of over $4m requested for locust control, the minister said.
The sum is substantial in a country where the president has been fundraising from wealthy people to help respond to the virus and its economic disruption. Health workers are threatening to strike over lack of protective gear.
Other countries face similar challenges.
In Ethiopia, where some 6 million people live in areas affected by the locust outbreak, the infestation if unchecked “will cause large-scale crop, pasture and forest-cover loss, worsening food and feed insecurity”, the FAO says.
Bands of immature locusts are forming in areas that include the country’s breadbasket, the Rift Valley region, it said.
Ethiopia’s agriculture minister has said efforts are under way to deploy six helicopters against the infestation that could last until late August.
But ministry spokesman Moges Hailu spoke of an ominous sign: the locust swarms are now appearing in locations where they had not been previously sighted.